Active Release Techniques (ART):
Soft tissue method that focuses on relieving tissue tension through the removal of fibrosis/ adhesions.
Sheet-like collection of the connective tissue (fascial) layers that creates a broad attachment for skeletal muscle to bone or other tissues.
Tissue that connects, supports, binds, or separates other tissues, bones or organs.
Cross Friction Massage:
Deep pressure targeted perpendicular across the affected soft tissue fibers to maintain mobility within the tissue and prevent adhesions from forming.
Active or active assisted joint movement aimed at applying tensile force to the muscle.
Delicate fascial that surrounds muscle fibers.
Fascial layer that encases bundles of Fascicles.
A thin sheath of fibrous tissue encasing muscle and other organs.
Bundles of skeletal muscle fibers.
Range of motion in a joint or series of joints, and the length of muscles that cross the joints to induce a bending movement or motion.
Gate Control Theory:
Non-noxious stimuli close the “gate” to noxious stimuli, preventing noxious stimuli from reaching the central nervous system; and therefore, decreasing ones’ perception of pain.
Golgi Tendon Organ:
Sensory organs that sense changes in muscular tension and can trigger muscle relaxation.
Inverse Myotatic reflex:
Spinal reflex that inhibits muscle contraction when tension exceeds a threshold at the muscle tendon junction.
Articulating point between to bones.
Short band of stout, yet flexible fibrous connective tissue that connect two bones or cartilage to stabilize a joint.
Clinical approach using hands-on techniques to manipulate soft tissue and joint mechanics in an effort to improve tissue elasticity, joint range of motion, and modulate pain. In addition, manual therapy techniques can reduce soft tissue inflammation and induce relaxation.
Manipulation of tissue such as rubbing, kneading or tapping with the hands or an instrument for relaxation or therapeutic purpose.
An instrument used to aid or assist the manipulation of soft tissue.
Neural end organ (such as tactile receptor) that respond to mechanical stimuli (such as pressure).
Mechanoreceptors that sense dynamic touch and pressure.
Mechanoreceptors that sense static touch and pressure.
Connective tissue base substance that acts as both a lubricant to decrease friction between tissues, and a glue to bundle fibers together.
Body tissue consisting of long cells that contract when stimulated to produced force and joint motion.
Muscle Fascial Sheath:
Envelope and bind the layers of muscle cells; and are organized in a hierarchy of strength.
Are composed of cylinder structures called (Myofibrils), which are bound together by a plasma membrane (Sarcolemma).
Sensory mechanisms that restrict muscle contraction.
The study of muscular function.
Sensory organs in muscle that are sensitive to stretching forces and help maintain muscle tone and prevent over-stretching through muscle contraction.
Are composed of Sarcomeres (the functional unit of skeletal muscle).
Are composed of contractile proteins (Actin, Myosin), responsible for muscle contraction, relaxation and elongation.
Mechanoreceptors that sense deep pressure and vibration.
Personal actions to control pain.
Modifying or controlling the body’s perception of noxious stimuli.
The inability of a two-joint muscle to adequately lengthen in order to allow full range of motion to the joint(s) it crosses.
Fascia surrounding Fascicles.
Sensory receptors that respond to body position and movement.
Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation:
A method of stretching muscles involving a series of contractions and relaxations, with stretching enforced during relaxation phase to maximize flexibility.
Mechanoreceptors that sense stretching of skin.
Binds myofibrils within the muscle fiber (cell).
Are composed of bundles of myofilaments that serve as the functional unit of skeletal muscle, where muscle contraction is generated.
Sliding Filament Theory:
Skeletal muscles contract when myofibrils contract, via cross bridge formation within Sarcomeres.
Body tissue that is not hardened or calcified; specially: tissue (such as tendon, muscle, skin, fat, and fascia) that typically connects, supports or surrounds bone and internal organs.
Soft Tissue Adhesion/Scar:
Fibrous connective tissue that forms between soft tissues as a result of injury or repetitive stress.
Soft Tissue Mobilization:
A manual therapy technique aimed at manipulating soft tissue to promote healing through localized blood flow.
Maintaining a tensile force to soft tissue for a period of time.
A form of physical exercise aimed at improving the elasticity of soft tissue.
Any object or material used to assist in the performance of stretching.
A spinal reflex that resists the change in muscle length by stimulating muscle contraction.
Targeted Vibration Therapy:
A manual therapy technique used to enhance the quality/health of soft tissue. Common clinical applications: Trigger point release, improve pliability and elasticity of soft tissue, pain modulation.
Cord-like collection of the connective tissue (fascial) layers that creates stout attachment for skeletal muscle to bone or other tissues.
Any type of mechanical, chemical, or emotional force placed on the body and its cells that is conducive to the healing process of an injury.
Therapeutic Myofascial Vibration:
The use of high frequency, low amplitude oscillations to encourage soft tissue remodeling.
Tonic Vibration Reflex:
Vibratory activation of muscle spindles causing a sustained muscle contraction.
An oscillation of the parts of a fluid or an elastic solid whose equilibrium has been disturbed.
The property of a substance exhibiting both elastic and viscus behavior, in which the application of stress causes temporary deformation if the stress is quickly removed, but permanent deformation if it is maintained.
Whole Body Vibration:
A generic term referring to vibration at any frequency applied to musculoskeletal system.